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1 . Arjuna said – O mightly armed one, I wish to understand the purpose of renunciation (tyaga) and the renounced order of life (SannvasaJ killer of Kesi.

18Eighteenth Chapter is the summary of Chapters 1 to 17. Total Gita is described in 17 chapters. 18th Chapter of Gita is summary of what is described in Chapter 1 to 17. In the first six chapters stress was given to service. In the next six chapters pure service and its nature and activities were discussed. In the third six chapters, knowledge, renunciation the activities of material nature and transcedental nature and devotional service were described. It was concluded that all acts should be performed in conjunction with the Supreme Lord representing by the words Om Tat-sat.

The third part of the Gita has shown that devotional service and nothing else is the ultimate purpose of Iife.

2. Supreme personality of Godhead said The giving up of activities that are based on material desire is what greatman call the renounced order of life Sannyasa) and giving up the results of all activities is, what the wise man call renunciation (Tyaga).The performance of activities for results has to be given up. The giving up of activities for material desire is called (Sanyasa) and giving up the results of all activities is called Tyaga.

3. The Supreme personality of God head said some learned men declare that all kinds of fruitive activities should be given up as faulty, yet other sages maintain that acts of sacrifice charity and penance should never be abandoned.

4. O best of the Bharatas now hear my, Judgement about renuciation. Renunciation is declared in the scriptures to be three kinds.

5. Acts of sacrifice, charity and penance are not to be given up. They must be performed. Indeed, and penance purify even the great sacrifice charity souls.

6. All these activities should be performed without attachment or any expectataion of result. They should be performed as a matter of duty, O son of Prtha. That is my final opinion.

Although all sacrifices are purifying, One should not expect any result by such performances. In other words, all sacrifices which are meant for material advancement in life should be given up, but sacrifices that purify one's existence. and elevate one to the spiritual plane should be performed. Everything that leads to Krishna consciousness must be encouraged. A devotee should accept any kind of work, sacrifice or charity which will help him in the discharge of devotional service to the Lord.

7. Prescribed duties should never be renounced. If one gives up his prescribed duties due to illusion, such renunciation is said to be in the mode of ignorance.

8. Work for material satisfaction must be given up. Food should be cooked for the Lord. After offering the food to the Lord, Food should be taken. Anyone who gives up prescribed duties as trouble some or out of fear of bodily discomfort is said to have renounced 1n the mode of passion. Such action never ljeads to the elevation of renunciation.

9. O Arjuna, when one performs his prescribed duty only because it ought to be done, and renounces all material association and all attachment of fruit, his renunciation is said to be in the mode of goodness.

10. The intelligent renouncer situated in the mode of goodness neither hates inauspicious work nor loves auspicious work. He performs the work considering it as work.

A person in mode of goodness does not hate anybody or anything which troubles his body. He works in the proper place and at the proper time without fearing the troublesome effects of his duty. Such a person situated in transcendence should be understood to be most intelligent and beyond all doubts in his activities.

11. It is indeed impossible for an embodied being to give up all activities, but he who renounces the fruits of action is called one who has truely renounced.

12. For one who is not renounced, the three fold fruits of action, desireable, undesirable and mixed-accure after death - But those who are in the renounced order of life have no such result to suffer or enjoy.

A person in Krishana consciousness acting inknowledge of his relationship with Krishana is always liberat.ed. Therefore, he does not have to enjoy or suffer, the results of his acts after death. otherwise, all acts have their results, Good, Bad etc. desirable, undesirable or mixed. If the act is performed inpersonal capacity and without in the name of God, One is sure to enjoy or suffer after death according to the act performed.

13. O mighty Arjuna, there are five causes for the accomplishment of all actions according to Vedanta. Now learn of these from - Me.

14. The place of action (body) the performer, the various senses, the many different kinds of endeavor and ultimately the supersoul - These are the five factors of action.

The instruments of action are senses and by senses the soul acts in various ways. For each and every action there is a different endeavor. But all' one's activities depend on the will of the supersoul, who is seated within the heart as a friend. the Supreme Lord is the Super cause. Under these circumstances, he who is acting in Krishana consciousness under the direction of the Supersoul situated within the heart is naturally not bound by any activities. Those is Krishana consciousness are not ultimately responsible for their actions.
Everything is dependent on the Supreme will, the supe'rsoul.

15. Whatever right or wrong action a man performs,by body mind or speech is caused by these five factors. Right and wrong actions are performed by the five factors i.e. body, the performance, various senses, the endeavor and supersoul.

16. Therefore one who thinks himself the only doer,not considering the five factors, is certainly not very intelligent and cannot see things as they are.

A foolish person cannot understand that the Supersoul is sitting as a friend within and conducting his actions. One who does not see the Supreme thinks himself to be the doer.

17. One who is not motivated by false ego, whose intelligence is not entangled, though he kills men in this world, does not kill-nor is he bound by his actions.

18. Knowledge, the object of knowledge and the knower are the three factors that motivate action, the senses, the work and the doer are the three constituents of action.

There are three kinds of impetus for daily work. Kowledge, the object of knowledge and the knower The instrument of work, the work itself and the worker are called the constituents of works. Any work done by any human being has these elements.

19. According to the three different modes of material nature, there are three kinds of knowledge, action and performance of action. Now hear them from Me.

20. That knowledge by which one undivided spiritual nature is seen in all living entities though they are divided into innumerable forms you should understand to be in the mode of goodness.

A person who sees one spirit soul in every Living being, whether a demigod, human being, animal, bird, beast or plantpossesses knowledge in the. mode of goodness. In all living entities one spirit soul is there although they have different bodies in terms of their previous work. To see superior nature, that is living force in everybody is to see in a mode of goodness.

21. That knowledge by which one sees that in every different body, there is a different type of living entity, you should understand to be in the mode of passion.

If one considers that body is itself the soul and there is no seperate soul beyond the body, according to such knowledge consciousness is temporary. All such conceptions are considered products of the mode of passion.

22. And that knowledge by which one is attached to one kind of work as the all in all without knowledge of the truth and which is very meager, is said to be in the mode of darkness.

The knowledge of common man is always in the mode of darkness or ignorance. For him God is money and knowledge means the satisfaction of bodily demands. Such knowledge has no connection with the Absolute Truth. It is more or less like the knowledge of animals. The knowledge of eating, sleeping etc. Such knowledge in the mode of ignorance.

Knowledge concerning the spirit soul beyond this body is called knowledge in the mode of goodness.

Knowledge producing many theories and doctrines by logic and speculation of mental attitude is product of mode of passion.

Knowledge concerned only with keeping the body. Comfortable is said to be in the mode of ignorance.

23. That action which is regulated and which is performed without attachment, without love or hatred and without desire for fruitive results is said to be in the mode of goodness.

Work performed as duty without self satisfaction or self gratification is called actions in the mode of goodness.

24. But actions performed with great efforts by one seeking to gratify his desires and enacted from a sense of false ego, is called action is the mode of passion.

25. That action performed in illusion in disregard of scriptural injunctions and without concern for future bondage or for violence or distress caused to others is said to be in the mode of ignorance.

26. One who performs his duty without association with the mode of material nature, without false ego, with great determination and enthusiasm and without wavering in success or failure is said to be a worker in the mode of goodness.

A person doing his duty properly without false ego and pride, without caring for success or failure and is equal in distress and happeness such a worker is called as is situated in the mode of goodness.

27. The worker who is attached to work and fruits of work, desiring to enjoy those fruits and who is greedy, always envious impure and is moved by joy and sorrow is said to be in the mode of passion.

A person is too much attached to a certain kind of work or to the result, because he has too much attachment for that work. He is generally very greedy and; he thinks that everything attained by him is permanent and never to be lost. He is working for his sense gratification. He does not care whether the act is pure
or impure. He is happy if successful and distressed in defeat - such a worker is situated in the mode of passion.

28. The worker who is always engaged in work against the injunctions of the scriptures who is materialistic, obstinate, cheating and expert in insulting others and who is lazy, always morose and procrastinating is said to be a worker in the mode of ignorance.

29. O winner of wealth, now please listen as I tell you in detail of the different kinds of understanding and determination, according to three modes of material nature.

30. O son of prtha that understanding by which one knows what ought to be done and what ought not to be done, what is to be feared and what is not to be feared, what is binding and what is liberating, is in the mode of goodness.

31. O son of Prtha that understanding which cannot distinguish between religion and irreligion, between action that should be done and action that should not be done is in the mode of passion.

32. That understanding which considers irreligion to be religion and religion to be irreligion, under the spell of illusion and darkness and strives always in the wrong directions, O Prtha is in the mode of ignorance.

Intelligence in the mode of ignorance is always working the opposite of the way it should. Men of ignorance understand a great soul to be a common man and accept a common man as a great soul. They think truth to be untruth and accept untruth as truth. In all activities they simply take the wrong path.

33. O son of Prtha that determination which is unbreakable which is sustained with stead fastness by Yoga practice and which thus controls the activities of mind, life and senses is determination in the mode of goodness.

Yoga is a means to understand supreme soul. One who is steadily fixed in the Supreme soul with determination, concentrating one's mind, life and sensory activities on the Supreme, engages in Krishana consciousness. That sort of determination is in the mode of goodness.

34. But that determination by which one holds fast to fruitive resultgs in religion, economic development and sense gratification is of the nature of passion, O Arjuna. Any operson who is always desirous of fruitive results in religions or economic activities, whose only desire is sense gratification and whose mind, life and senses are thus engaged is in the mode of passion.

35. And' that determination which cannot go beyond dreaming, fearfulness, lamentation morosenses and illusion such unintelligent determination. 0 son of prtha is in the mode of ignorance.

It should not be concluded that a person in the mode of goodness does not dream. Here dream means too much sleep. Dreaming is always present either in the mode of goodness, passion or ignorance, dreaming is natural occurrence. But those who cannot avoid oversleeping, who cannot avoid the pride of enjoying material objects, who are always dreaming of lording it over the material world and whose life, mind and senses are thus engaged are considered to have determination in the mode of ignorance.

36. O best of the Bharatas, now please hear from Me about the three kinds of happiness by which the conditioned soul enjoys and by which he sometimes comes to the end of all distress.

A conditioned soul tries to enjoy material happiness again and again. It is always engaged in some type of sense gratification but when he understands by good association that it is only a repetition of the same thing and he is awakened to his real Krishana consciousness, he is sometimes relieved from such repetitive so called happiness.

37. That which in the beginning may be just like poison, but at the end is just like nectar and .which awakens one to self realization is said to be happiness in the mode of goodness.

For self realization one has to follow many rules to control the mind and senses, which are difficult, bitter like poison, but if one is successful, he considers the poison to be nectar and he enjoys.

38. That happiness which is derived from contact of the senses with their objects and which appears like nectar at first, but poison at the end is said to be of the nature of passion.

A young man and a young woman meet and they drive sense gratification and they have sex but after some time it looks like poison. Happiness derived from a combination of the senses and the sense objects is always a cause of distress and should be avoided by all means.

39. And that happiness which is blind to self realization, which is delusion from beginning to end and which arises from sleep, laziness and illusion is said to be of the nature of ignorance.

One who takes pleasure in laziness and in sleep is certainly in the mode of darkness. One who has no idea how to act and how not to act is also in the mode of ignorance. When there is no happiness either in the beginning and at he end. For the person in the mode of is only distress both in the beginning and ignorance there at the end.

40. There is no being existing, either here or among the demigods in the higher planetary systems, which is freed from these three modes born of material nature. The Lord has told the total influence of the three modes of material nature allover the universe.

41. Brahmanas, Ksatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras are distinguished by the qualities born of their own natures in accordance with the material modes, 0 Arjuna.

42. Peacefulness, self control, austerity purity, tolerance, honesty, knowledge, wisdom and religiousness ¬these are the natural qualities by which the brahamans work.

43. Herosim, power, determination, resourcefulness, courage in battle, generosity and leadership are the natural qualities of work for the Ksatriyas.

44. Farming, cow protection and business are the natural work for the Vaisyas and for the Sudars there is labour and service of others.

45. By following his qualities of work, every man can become perfect. Now please hear from Me how this can be done.

46. By worship of the Lord, who is the source of all beings and who is all pervading, a man can attain perfection through performing his own work.

Lord is the source of all beings. He is present every where as he is super soul in demigods all human beings, all animals and everywhere. As part and Parcel of the supreme Lord, one has his duty to render service unto the Supreme. Everyone should be engaged in devotional service to the Lord in full Krishana consciousness. God should be worshipped. By. the grace of God he fully becomes of everything. That is the perfection of life. The supreme Lord himself takes charge of delivering perfection of such a devotee – That is the highest life. In whatever occupation one may be engaged, if he serves the supreme Lord, he will achieve the highest perfection.

47. It is better to engage in one's own occupation even though one may perform it imperfectly, than to accept another's occupation and perform it perfectly. Duties prescribed according to one's nature are never affected by sinful reactions.

Anything done for personal sense gratification is a cause of bondage. Everyone should be engaged according to the particular mode of nature, he has acquired and he should decide to work 6nly to serve the Supreme cause of the supreme Lord.

48. Every endeavor is covered by some fault just as fire is covered by smoke. Therefore one should not give up the work born of his nature - O son of Kunti, even if such work is full of fault.

49. One who is self controlled and unattached and who disregards all material enjoyments, can obtain by practice of renunciation, the highest perfect stage of freedom from reaction.

The real renunciation means that one should¬ always think himself part and parcel of the Supreme Lord and therefore think that he has no right to enjoy the results of his work. Since he is part and parcel of the Supreme Lord the results of his work must be enjoyed by the Supreme Lord. This is actually Krishana consciousness. A person is Krishana consciousness is really a Sannyasi one in the renounced order of life. By such a mentally one is satisfied because he is actually acting for the Supreme. Thus he is not attached to anything material. He takes pleasure in every act.

50. O son of Kunti learn from Me how one who has achieved this perfection can attain to the supreme perfectional stage, Brahman the stage of highest
knowledge, by acting in the way I shall now summarize.

The Lord described how can one . achieve the highest perfectional stage simply by being engaged in his occupational duty, performing that duty for the supreme personality of God head. One attains the supreme stage of Brahman simply by renouncing the results of his work for the satisfaction of the supreme Lord. That is the process of self realization. The actual perfection of knowledge is in attaining pure Krishana consciousness.

51-53. Being purified by his intelligence and controlling the mind with determination giving up the objects of sense gratification being freed from attachment and hatred, one who lives in a secluded place, who eats little who controls his body, mind and power of speech, who is always in trance and who is always detached free from ego, false strength, false pride, lust, anger and acceptance of material things free from false proprietorship and peaceful - such a person is certainly elevated to the position of self realization. When one is purified by intelligence, he keeps himself in the mode of goodness. He controls his mind and is always in trance. He is not attached to sense gratification and is not attached to the result of his actions. He lives in a secluded place, he does not eat more and has no false ego nor has pride. He is satisfied with everything that is offer to him by the grace of God. He is never angry in the absence of sense gratification. He is not distressed. He is free from the material conceptions of life, he becomes peaceful and cannot be agitated. Who remains peaceful even when his desires are not full filled can alone achieve peace.

54. One who is peacefully situated at once realises the supreme Brahaman and becomes fully joyful. He never laments or desires to have anything. He is equally disposed towards every living entity. In that state he attains pure devotional service unto Me.

When one works for sense gratification there is misery, but when one is engaged in pure devotional service, there is no misery. Since God is full, a devotee who is one with God also becomes full. He does not desire for material gains, because he knows that everything is part and parcel of the supreme Lord.

55. One can understand Me as I am as the Supreme personality of Godhead, only by devotional service. And when one is in full consciousness of Me by such devotion he can enter into the Kingdom of God.

By devotional service alone one can understand the supreme personality of Godhead. One who is fully conversant with Krishana science becomes eligible to enter into the spiritual kingdom the abode of God.

56. Though engaged in all kinds of activities, my pure devotee under my protection, reaches the eternal and imperishable abode by my grace. A devotee in Krishana consciousness and devotional service who becomes pure can enter the Supreme abode with the protection of God. There is no change. Everything is eternal, imperishable and full of knowledge.

57. In all activities just depend upon Me and work always under my protection - In such devotional service be fully conscious of Me.

When one acts in Krishana consciousness he acts as servant of supreme Lord. A servant working for master is not affected by profit and loss. He simply discharges his duty. So, if we work for Krishana, we cannot loose anything. The supreme Lord will be bearing the loss for whom we are working. So, work under the protection and guidance of God. During working have full faith in God then you can succeed in every sphere.

58. If you become conscious of Me you will pass over all the obstacles of conditioned life by My grace. If however you do not work in such consciousness but all through false ego, not hearing Me, you will be lost.

59. If you do not act according to my direction and do not fight, you will be falsely directed. By your nature, you will have to be engaged in warfare.

60. Under illusion you are now declining to act according to my direction But compelled by the work born of your own nature, you will act all the same, 0 son of Kunti.

If one refuses to act under the direction of the supreme Lord, then he is compelled to act by the modes in which he is situated or is born. Everyone is under the spell of a particular combination of the modes of nature and is acting in that way. If anyone voluntarily engages himself under the directions of Supreme Lord, he becomes glorious.

Arjuna was Ksatriya, So, he was duty bound to fight according to his nature. God says that you should fight even if he had n6tobeyed the orders of God he would have fought due to his nature.

61. The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone's heart- Arjuna and is directing the wanderings of all living entities, who are seated as on a machine, made of the material energy.

Super soul sits in the heart of everybody and give him directions. Super soul is knower of the past, present and future, remains the witness of all his activities. The living entity is not independent. He is always under the control of God. Therefore, one's duty is to surrender and that is the best way to reach God.

62. O Bharatas- Surrender unto Him utterly- By His grace you will attain transcendental peace and the Supreme and eternal abode.

63. Thus I have explained to you knowledge still more confidential Deliberate on this fully and then do what you Wish to do. One who in brahma bhuta condition is joyful, he never lament nor does he desire anything. That is due to confidential knowledge. That is due to confidential knowledge of the supersoul. This is aIso Brahman knowledge, it is superior. As you like/ you may your independence act Lord does not The best advice imparted to Arjuna is to surrender unto the Supreme seated within his heart. One should try to work according to the orders of supersoul. Surrender to the Supreme personality of Godhead is in the best interest of living entities.

64. Because you are My dear friend, I am speaking to you My Supreme instruction the most confidential knowledge of all. Hear this from Me for it is for your benefit.

65. Always think of Me, become My devotee worship Me and offer your homage unto Me. Thus you will come to Me without fail. I promise you this because you are My very dear friend.

66. Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall deliver you from all sinful reactions., Do not fear.

Now Krishana says to Arjuna that you should give up all the processes that have been explained i.e. knokwledge of Supreme Brahman, knowledge of the supersoul, knowledge of different types of orders, knowledge of renounced order of life, knowledge of non attachment, sense and mind control, meditation etc. He should simply surrender to Krishana. The surrender will sane him from all kinds of sinful reactions for the Lord personally promises to protect him.

67. This confidential knowledge may never be explained to those who are not austere or devoted or engaged in devotional service nor to one who is envious of Me.

68. For one who explains this supreme secret to the devotees, pure devotioinal service is guaranteed and at the end he will come back to Me.

69. There is no servant in this world more dearer to Me than he nor will there ever be one more dearer.

70. And I declare that he who studies this sacred conversation of ours, worships Me by his intelligence.

71. And one who listens with faith and without envy becomes free from sinful reactions and attains to the auspicious planets, where pious dwell.

Simply by hearing Bhagwada Gita even a . person who does not try to be a pure devoitee attains the result of righteous activities. Thus a pure devotee of the Lord gives a chance to everybody to become free from all sins and sinful reactions and to become a devotee of the Lord.

72. On Son of Prtha, O conqueror of wealth have you heard this with an attentive mind ? And are your ignorance and illusions now dispelled.

73. Arjuna said : My dear Krishana, O infallible one, My illusion is now gone. I have regained my memory by your mercy. I am now firm and free from doubt and am prepared to act according to your instructions.

74. Sanjaya said:¬ Thus have I heard the conversation of two great souls, Krishana and Arjuna. And, so wo~derful is that message that my hair is standing on end.

75. By the mercy of Vyasa, I have heard these most confidential talk directly from the master of all mysticism Krishana, who was speaking personally to Arjuna.

76. O King as I repeatedly recall this wonderous and holy dialogue between Krishana and Arjuna, I take pleasure being thrilled at every moment.

77. O King as I remember the wonderful form of Lord Krishana, I am struck with wonder more and more and I rejoice again and again.

78. Whereever there is Kirshana, the master of all Mystics and herever there is Arjuna, the Supreme archer There will also certainly be opulence, victory, extra ordinary power and morality. That is my opinion.

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