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1. Dhrtarstra said : O' Sanjaya, what did the sons of Pandu and my people do after assembling at Kurukshetra with a desire to fight? Dhrtarastra had done injustice to his nephews, the Pandavas. He was fully confident of the large strength of his sons' Army. Still his sins were weighing heavily upon the heart of the blind king and he was also not sure about the success of his son Duryodhan.Sanjaya was a student of Vyasa, by the mercy of Vyasa, he was able to see the Battle-field of Kurukshetra, although he was in the room of Dhrtarasta.Dhrtarastra asked him about the situation on the battle-field.

12. Sanjaya said : Having seen the army of the Pandavas in the battle-field, king Duryodhana,approached his teacher (Drona) and spoke:- "The Pandava force was less in number than the army of Duryodhana. Duryodhana was still worried as his motives were impure and his cause was feeling agitated. Although Duryodhana was the king, he still had to go to the Commander on account of the seriousness of the situation. He was frightened after seeing the military arrangement of the pandavas, who were pious since their birth and were fighting for a just cause.

Be hold the great army of sons of Pandu, O my teacher, arranged by your disciple the son of Drupada.

Duryodhana was a great diplomat. He wanted to point out the defects of Dronacharya, his Commander -in-Chief.

Dronacharya had some political quarrel with King Drupada, the father of Draupadi, who was wife of Arjuna. Still Dronacharya who was liberal "Brahmana " imparted all his military secrets to son of Drupada. Dhrstadymna, when he was his disciple. He learnt everything about military education from Dronacharya, who was Commander-in-Chief of Kaurva. Dhrstadyumna took the side of pandavas, who was very powerful.

Duryodhana pointed out the mistake to Dronacharya and he also wanted him to tell that he should not be lenient in the battle with Pandavas who were his students and he should not have imparted his Military secrets to his disciple son of Drupada.

4. Here in this army are many heroic bowmen equal in fighting to Bhima and Arjuna. There are great fighters like Yayudhana, Virata and Drupada.

5. There are also great heroes,powerful fighers like Dharatarstra, Cekitana, Kasiraja, Purujit,Kuntibhoja and Saibya.

6. The strong Yudhamanyu and the brave Uttamanja the son of Subhadra and the sons of Draupati. All these warriors are great chariot fighters.

In these stanzas, there is a list of noted personalities in the Pandava Army.

A Maharathi was incharge of a group of 11000 archers which formed a division in the ancient Hindu Army.

Duryodhana was worried after seeing effectiveness of Arjuna and Bhima and great warriors.

17 . O best of the Brahmanas, i.e. Dronacharya, let me tell you about the Captains of my Military force, who are especailly qualified in my force.

8. There are personalities like you, Bhima, Karna, Krpa, Asvatthama, Vikarana and the son of Somadatta called Bhurisrava, who have always been victorious in battle.

Duryodhanais brother of Vikarna, Asvatthama is the son of Dronacharya. Bhurisarva is the son of the King Bahikas. Karna is the half brother of Arjuna, as he was born to Kunti before her marriage with king Pandu. Krpachayra’s twin sister married Droncharya.

Droyodhana in his mental hysteria, got mentally upset due to his selfish motive and past crimes. He used words twice born to Dronacharya, who was his Commander-in -Chief and Teacher.

When a person has lost his morale due to the heavy burden of his own crimes weighing on his conscience, it is but natural that he loses all sense of proportion in his words and clearly shows his mental state.

A Brahamana is considered "twice born" because of his inner spiritual knowledge and development.

Duryodhana due to fear and his mental state was upset and he had over stepped the bounds of. discretion, so, he narrated the heroes of his army to the Acharya to console him and to tell him that his army was also good under his Command.

9. There are many other heroes who are prepared to give their lives for me. All of them are well equiped with different kinds of weapons and all these have full experience in Military science.

Jayadratha, Krtavarma and Salya are determined to lay down their lives for Duryodhana's sake.

In other words, it was already known that all of them would die in the Battle. of Kurukshetra for joining party of the sinful Duryodhana.

Duryodhana was confident about his victory in the battle on account of the above mentioned combined strength of his friends. He was also sure that his army cannot be conquered by small army of Pandavas.

10. The army of Duryodhana was protected by Bhishma. He considered his strength as immeasureable, whereas the strength of Pandavas protected by Bhima as Limited.

11. All of you must give full support to Grand Father Bhisma while stationed in your respective positions and protect Bhisma.

Duryodhana wanted to tell that Bhisma is very strong man and he is the hero of his army although he is old .At the same time he wanted to tell other heroes that they are also strong so, they should protect Bhisma from all sides.

12. Then Bhisma blew his conch, making a sound like the roar of a lion, which gave joy to Duryodhana.

It was a first bullet shot in the modern, warfare with this lion roar- Mahabharata War was started.

Indirectly, by the blew of symbolism of the conch shell very loudly, he informed his depressed grand-son Duryodhana that he had no chance of victory in I the battle field, because the Supreme Lord Krishna was on the other side. But still it was his duty to conduct the fight and he will fight till his death.

13. After that, the conchshells ,drums, bugles,trumpets and cow horns were sounded and the combined sound was tremendous.

14. On the other side Madhava i.e. Lord Krishana and Arjuna seated in their magnificent chariot, yoked with white horses, blew their divine conches.

Lord Kirshana was on the side of Arjuna. So the victory was also on the side of P~ndavas. Goddess of fortune always lives with her husband Lord Krishana. So victory and fortune were with Arjuna. Sound of Divine conches indicated that fact to otherside so that the other side may understand that they were going to loose and Dharitarshtra may persuade his sons to withdraw from the War front.

15. Lord Krishana blew his Panchajanya Conch, Arjuna blew, the Davadatta and Bhima blew Pandu Conch. Krishana is owner of all senses and he is the Supreme Director. So the Pandavas conveyed the message announced by the sounds of Conchshells that they will win.

16. King Yudhisthira, the son of Kunti blew the Anant-Vijaya conch. Nakula and Sahadeva blew Sughosa and Manipuspaka conch.

17. The king of Kasi an excellent archer, Sikhandi the mighty Commander of eleven thousand archers Dhirstadyumma, Viranta and Satyaki, the un-conquered.

18. Drupada and the sons of Draupadi, 0 Lord of Earth and the sons of Subhadra, the mighty armed, blew their respect.ive conches. Sanjaya informed very tactfully indicated that great battle.

19. The blowing of became different conches uproarious vibrating both in the sky and on the earth. It shattered the hearts of sons of Dhrtarastra.

20. Arjuna was seated in a chariot bearing the flag marked Hanuman. Arjuna saw the sons of Dhratarshtra marked and he spoke to Lord Krishana.

21-22. Arjuna said '0 Lord take my chariot between the two armies, so that I may see who are there to fight with me" and he may know with whom he should fight.

23. For I desire to observe those who are assembled were the low minded, powermad, greed ridden men who had who joined the forces of Kauravas. He also wanted to assess the army strength of his enemy.

24. Lord Krishana drew up the fine chariot in the midest of the armies of both parties.

In the presence of Bhisma, Drona and all the other rulers of the earth Arjuna also, sawall the Kauravas assembled here. Krishana had agreed to be Charioteer of Arjuna. Arjuna was son of Lord Krishana's aunt Prtha. He did not want that after seeing Kurvs he may not fight. So, he addressed Arjuna, behold Kurus with whom he had to fight.

26. He saw friends, and relatives in the army. He became overwhelmed with compassion and spoke thus.

28. Arjuna said," My dear Krishana; seeing my friends and relatives present before me in such a fighting spirit’ I feel the limbs of my body are becoming motionless and my mouth is drying. A man who has genuine devotion to the Lord has all the good qualities, which are found in godly persons or in the demi Gods. Whereas the non-devotee having material justifications by education and culture, lacks in godly qualities. Arjuna saw that the soldiers standing in the army of Kurus, who were his relatives, friends Guru, etc. were likely to be killed.Due to his soft heartedness he was feeling sorry for them and he compassionated towards them.

29. My whole body is tembling, my hair is standing on end, my bow is slipping from my hands and my skin is burning.

30. I am also unable to stand here any longer, I am forgetting myself and my mind is reeling, I only see causes of misfortune, 0 Krishna killer of kesi demon.

The mind of Arjuna is unsteady, agitated and it has lost all its morale.

Everybody is interested in himself and in his own welfare. No one is interested in the Supreme self. So we suffer material pains. Excessive attachment for material gains makes a man mad and greedy. Arjuna thought that his victory will be only because of Krishana.

31. And I see adverse omens, 0 Keshva, nor do I see any good in killing my own Kinsmen in the battle.

32-35. O! Govinda, of what avail to us are a kingdom, happiness or even life itself when all those for whom we may desire they are now arrayed on this battlefield.

O! Madhusudan, when teachers, fathers, sons, grand fathers, maternal uncles, father in law, grandsons, brothers in law and other relatives are ready to give up their lives and properties and are standing before me, why should, I wish to kill them, even though they might kill me.

I am not prepared to fight with them even in exchange for the three worlds. What pleasure will we desire from killing the sons of Dharatrastra.

It is sin to kill the sons of Dhratrastra ? There would be no gain and they could not be happy by killing our own kinsmen.

37-38. Therefore, although these men are greedy and they see no fault in kliling us or quarelling with friends why should we who can see the crime in destroying a family, do such acts, of sin.

39. Why should not we, who clearly see evil in the destruction of family units, learn to turn away from this'sin, O! Janardana.

40. When irreligion is prominent 1n the family, of Krishana, the women of the family become polluted and from the degradation of womanhood, comes unwanted progeny. On the failure of such Vernasrama dharma, naturally the women become free to all and mix with men. Irresponsible men also provoke adutlery in society, and thus unwanted children are born.

41. An increase of unwanted population certainly causes hellish life. The ancestors of corrupt families fall down as offering them food and water are entirely stopped.

42. Confusion of castes, leads the slayer of the family to hell, for their forefathers fall deprived of the offerings of PINDA (rice ball) and water.

43. By evil deeds, the external religious rites of the castes and family are destroyed, and they dwell in hell.

44. We are prepared to commit great sin driven desire to enjoy royal happiness, we are intReding by to kill our own kinsmen.

45. It will be better for me if the sons of Dhrtarstra with weapons in hand kill me, when I am even unarmed.

46. Sanjay said Arjuna having spoken this on battlefield.

47. Put his, bow and arrows at one side and sat down on the Chariot, his mind was overwhelmed with grief.

Arjuna was a very kind hearted person, after seeing his own relations in the army of his enemy, he saw all the harms, which could come to the family of Pandu and Kaurvas. He declared that he will not fight even he may be killed by his enemy to save the family.

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